|The Valley Fold||- - - - - - - - - - - - - -|
A valley fold means that the fold you make will create a 'valley' or gully in the paper. These are sometimes called 'book folds' too, because when you make the fold on a square piece of paper, the result looks like a book.
|The Peak Fold|
|The Pleat Fold|
This instruction is meant to show the folder how to push a certain point
(or points) on the model to ease it into the next step. Be aware that often
the 'push here' direction is part of an intermediate step; you are pushing
a particular point on the model to encourage it to move into the next position.
This one can be very confusing for beginners. Often
the problem is that the diagram doesn't specify behind what. This
calls for some experimentation. Find out why the flap is being folded behind
something else. Is it to hide the flap? Then it probably doesn't matter
what you fold it behind as long as the flap remains hidden. Is it to lock
the model? Then you will be able to determine which flap holds the model
the most securely. If the piece is folded behind a part of the model so
that it may be removed for later utilization, then you should read ahead
in the diagrams to determine where it will need to be made available.
|Turn the Model Over|
This one is quite simple as it merely indicates to turn the model over.
The primary recommendation here is to watch for it! Sometimes a model can
seem very confusing when all that's wrong is you've neglected to turn it
over. Intermediate and especially expert diagrams typically involve a great
deal of turning over, turning back, turning over, etc... Always make sure
your model matches the diagrams in the book.
|Fold / Unfold|
Fold / Unfold instructions generally are for the purpose
of pre-creasing. Even though the benefit of pre-creasing may not be evident
immediately, the instruction is usually provided to make a subsequent step
easier; the paper will already move in a preferred way. Some complicated
folds may be made somewhat easier in this way.
Unfold instructions are similar to the fold/unfold instruction,
although if the direction is to simply unfold, chances are you will be
directed to unfold all the way back to a certain step. While fold/unfold
instructions general refer to a single step pre-crease, unfold usually
occurs after a series of instructions; it is a more complex form of pre-creasing.
In more detailed diagrams, the unfold may be part of a series of steps
meant to free a piece of the model, or some trapped paper. In this case
the model will be refolded after the paper or other part of the model is
The X-ray line is meant to give the folder an idea of what is going on 'inside' the model, by showing a view as if some of the paper were invisible. At times this will be necessary in order to determine how a fold is to be tucked inside, or at other times, where the paper is coming from that is to be folded outward. If confused by an X-ray line in a diagram, one way to understand what is being shown is to sacrifice a model and either tear or cut some paper away to see what is going on in there. A less extreme method may also work: carefully unfold as much of the model as is necessary to determine what is being shown by the X-ray view.
Crease Line _________________
Crease lines show the results of previous folds. If a crease line shows in a diagram that is not in your model, you may have skipped an important pre-creasing step. Some advanced diagrams start out with pre-crease lines already existing. This is because some creases are quite common, such as folding the paper in half diagonally in each direction (think of an 'x' inside a square).
One more thing to remember about crease lines. Don't assume that the direction of the fold during pre-creasing is necessarily going to be the direction of the fold later on. Often the pre-crease is made when the affected section of the paper is most accessible. When the fold is made later on, it may be that the fold will go in the opposite direction (i.e., valley v. peak). The pre-crease is still a worthwhile step of course, because it has stressed the paper in a given line and will be more prone to bending in that same line again, even if it is the inverse of the original pre-crease. Confused? It makes more sense in the context of the entire model, so don't be.
Kasahara calls this the "pocket" fold. In it, an existing fold is inverted. This instruction is usually accompanied by diagram lines showing whether peak or valley folds are to be used.
Outside Reverse Fold
Kasahara calls this a "hood" fold, because when completed one side of the paper will have been folded back over the main body, creating a hood or collar.
by Steve Woodmansee
Bowing lady and Fan graphics by Nekochan